Adventures in xml and cascading style sheets.

This is a basic webpage I designed for LIBR 240 Information Tech tools and Applications. This was an initial assignment that consisted of a basic XML and CSS structure to create the site.


by James R. Hugunin for

Discipline and Photograph: The Prison

The Peace Museum, 314 W. Institute Pl., Chicago, Illinois

13 September – 16 November, 1996

and his collared Captives

(collection of Stanley B. Burns, M.D.)

This exhibition—opening
on the twenty-fifth anniversary of the Attica Prison Uprising — focuses mainly
upon work by Morrie Camhi, Dawn Dedeaux, Lloyd DeGrane, Lucinda Devlin, Jeanne
C. Finley, Robert Saltzman, and Marshall Weber. Historical balance is given
by including Cinda Firestone’s film documentary Attica (1971), preserved
on video, and Danny Lyon’s images from his photo-book Conversations with
the Dead
(1971), in addition to related historical items, such Richard Lawson’s
prints from glass-plate negatives in “The Joliet Prison Photographs 1890 – 1930”

Click to go to Lawson's website.

No. 7213
(c. 1915) from Richard Lawson’s

“The Joliet
Prison Photographs 1890 – 1930” (1981)

The contemporary
image-makers featured here each present a different strategy and perspective
concerning The Prison Experience. Like the proverb about the Blind Men who
each describes an elephant based upon touching one part of that large beast,
these image-makers’ representations, albeit sincere, are partial, imperfect
constructions of the carceral. As diverse as their approaches are, their vision
is still that of an outsider looking in, they are not In the Belly of the
as the title of inmate Jack Henry Abbott’s boasts and as depicted
in the imagery of inmate-photographers reproduced in the photo catalogue Photography
from Within
(1974) on display here — but neither is their vision merely

Rockefeller is put (symbolically) behind bars

silver print, 1976) by Robert H. from the catalogue

(The Floating Foundation of

New York, 1977)

Even as their work
“speaks up” for the inmate who is often denied an empowering visual representation,
they subtly question the naive belief in the veracity of the photographic
image and critique those who would knowingly or not perpetuate the stereotyped
B-movie image of “the vicious con.” Thus, the works in this show deal with
the politics of representation; they point to, despite their outsider status
and difference of approach, the ideological construction of the repressive
image of “the con” for the con it is.  Paradoxically, in so doing, their
imagery overlooks the violent, chaotic conditions that obtain in maximum-security
prisons. To photograph such would risk producing images that could be misread
by the average viewer, those unfamiliar with the prison experience, as confirming
the B-movie stereotype. Why? Because the source of that violence and chaos
would mostly likely be perceived as originating wholly from the “corrupted
natures” of the inmates, rather than seen as an innate structural aspect designed
into such an institution. The infamous high-tech, high-security units where
inmates are isolated in their cells most of the day are the latest, most “rationalized”
attempt in this regard.

Unwilling Sitter for a Police Record,”

(woodcut, 1873), Sir Luke Fildes

one must recall that these images were obtained only with the permission of
the Prison Authorities; the limits of representation had already been laid down
by the warden, as well as inflected by what the inmates themselves felt comfortable
with the photographer seeing. Moreover, absent here are those high-security
units — such as Marion Prison in Southern Illinois and the notorious Pelican
Bay facility in North California — and “chain-gang” labor that are being increasingly
employed as regressive punishments toward inmates (disproportionately people
of color) who are increasingly being dehumanized in the popular media as monstrous
Others deserving subhuman treatment. 

and Phrenology—Pseudo-Sciences

the European Caucasian as the norm of perfection, these supposed sciences
of the cranium and the face claimed they could specify deviancy from that
norm — either the genius or the idiot, the saint or the criminal — by a careful
study of those physical features. These methods were also used to specify
racial differences and reenforce racial stereotyping. The idea was to be able
to read character by mapping the invisible mental/moral qualities onto the
visible physical features of the subject. Photography was used to lend “objective
visual data” to underwrite this supposed science in two ways:

1) specify individual peculiarities (the Bertillon Measurement mugshot
system as developed in France by Alphonse Bertillon);

Measurement Mugshot
(1923), Chicago Police Department

Measurement System as used at Joliet Prison (ca. 1890)

2) reveal common characteristics among a group (of geniuses, mental defectives,
criminals, etc.) by compositing (printing one image over another, over
another, etc.) several identically posed mugshots until, supposedly, archetypal
traits emerged and individual differences blurred out. This method was
called the Galtonian Composite after its French inventor Frances Galton.
The physical stereotype of “the con” rose to public awareness through these
erroneous methods. Photography was used repressively to further these dubious
studies. Hence, mugshots were not only a means of identifying specific
criminals, but also a way to display the general criminal type that society
was to identify and protect itself against.

Deep Structure of the Carceral Narrative

studying scores of articles, photographic books, inmates’ writings, and so
forth, I have discovered a common underlying structure to the stories being
expressed, a mythic structure identical to what Structural linguist Jurij
Lotman pointed out as underlying all folktales. This thesis developed in detail
in my unpublished text which inspired this exhibition: Discipline and Photograph:
The Prison Experience
(1994). The plot-space is divided by a single boundary
— an obstacle — such as the prison cell, wall, fence, or formidable gate.
This obstacle produces two textual zones:

an internal sphere (the cellblock) and,

an external sphere (“free” society).
types of characters confront this obstacle:

the mobile investigator (often a benefactor, such as Danny Lyon, Robert
Saltzman, or the members of The Floating Foundation of Photography who
taught expressive photography of New York State inmates) who enjoys freedom
in regard to the carceral plot-space and mediates between inside and outside;

those who are immobile (the incarcerated inmates) who represent a function
of that plot-space and can only overcome the obstacle (the civil death
and invisibility that follows upon one’s incarceration) with the assistance
of the mobile investigator.
are, however, extraordinary instances where the inmates have been empowered
— albeit through the efforts of a mobile individual who mediated between inside
and outside the prison — to make their own images:

Warden Percy Lainson of the Iowa State Penitentiary at Fort Madison permitted
inmate-magazine staff-photographers in the 1950s to work freely within
the walls;

The Floating Foundation of Photography’s artist-photographers held in-prison
photography courses, training the inmates (both men and women) to express
their situation behind bars, helping them arrange an exhibition and catalogue
of their work;

in Robert Saltzman’s collaborative work with inmates at New Mexico State
Penitentiary where this narrative dialectic of inside/outside is objectified,
showing how his outsider’s view becomes enframed and commented upon by
the insider’s response to his image and this carceral situation.


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